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The role of traceability in food fraud

17 JULY 2018, 11:07 AM


  • Improved traceability is crucial in tackling food counterfeiting, says Miguel Campos, export sales manager at food packaging supplier Advanta
February / March 2021


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The role of traceability in food fraud

Notorious wine counterfeiter, Rudy Kurniawan, pocketed an estimated $150 million from fraudulent wine sales in the early 2000’s. Using a DIY workshop, he skilfully modified cheaper wines and relabelled them as prestigious vintages. However, food fraud isn’t an exclusive challenge for premium products.

According to the World Customs Organisation (WCO), seven per cent of global trade consists of counterfeit products. Kurniawan’s wine fraud was dubbed the biggest hoax in the history of wine sales, but for the wider food and beverage industry, fraudulent products regularly cost the sector up to US $40 billion per year globally.

Food fraud describes any product that is deliberately mislabelled, misrepresented, diluted, tampered with or — in the case of Kuraniawan — substituted with a different product. Unsurprisingly, profit is the primary reason that food products fall foul to this crime, but this doesn’t necessarily mean fraud only affects high-end products. Everyday products like olive oil, honey, milk and coffee are among the most commonly counterfeit foods.

Back in 2015, the Italian press revealed large-scale olive oil fraud. Products from seven major olive oil producers were proven to contain significant amounts of lower quality oils and therefore did not meet EU labelling rules for extra virgin oil. A more extreme example is fake alcohol. Counterfeit beverages often contain cheap substitutes for ethanol. These can include dangerous chemicals used in cleaning fluids and methanol, which is usually used in antifreeze — creating a potentially lethal cocktail.

Consumers are expected to trust the ingredients listed on the packaging of food and drink products. However, with such high-profile cases of food fraud, the public’s faith in accurate product labelling is faltering.

Naturally, manufacturers endeavour to protect their own products. Reducing the likelihood of food fraud is necessary for risk management and mitigation, lowering the chance of product recalls and protecting brand reputation.

Everybody recalls the damning headlines about the horsemeat scandal. In 2013, many British and Irish food products were revealed to contain up to 100 per cent horse meat, even though they were labelled as beef or pork. Despite public outrage, many supermarkets and manufacturers remained relatively unscathed by the scandal. The issue was blamed on Europe’s complicated beef supply chain, with food manufacturers using both global and EU sourcing strategies for their supply.

Regardless of the supposed complexity of supply chains, the scandal spurred public demand for greater traceability. As a result, there have been greater efforts to create more effective technologies for product identification.

Beyond the barcode
The most commonly understood method of traceability is bar codes. However, as this technology was introduced in the 1970s, they have been around long enough to become easy to counterfeit. Holograms and steganograms — images embedded in pictures — are a newer form of traceability marking. While they are more difficult to counterfeit, it isn’t completely impossible.

In the extra virgin olive oil sector, a market littered with fake products, a group of producers are working with Norwegian technology firm Thinfilm, to combat counterfeits. By embedding tiny chips into the oils packaging, customers can scan the chip with a smartphone to identify the exact source of the olives. However, this wouldn’t work if the supply chain had been breached, and the original oil had been poured our and replaced.

Advancements in software are now enabling manufacturers to monitor supply chains digitally, allowing them to easily identify areas where traceability could be improved. For example, using intelligent supply chain software, a food manufacturer can view real-time production data from suppliers. By integrating the supplier’s logistics and warehousing data, the manufacturer could identify if the wrong batch of ingredients has been dispatched — before these incorrect ingredients are used for manufacturing.

Looking to the future, technologists are beginning to experiment with new ways to identify whether a product has been tampered with, or whether it is the correct product at all. Examples include implementing genetic labelling, fingerprinting and even putting synthetic DNA onto packaging to ensure a product has not been interfered with during transit.

These inventions may not enter the mainstream for several years —if they take off at all. Some could argue that sprawling supply chains and ever-changing technology means there is no such thing as tamper-proof product. However, there are ways to strengthen traceability efforts without implementing entirely new inventions.

Secure the supply chain
Food manufacturers must have faith in their own traceability efforts and reduce the likelihood of food fraud. However, outside of the factory walls, manufacturers are required to hand this responsibility to the wider supply chain.

The Food Standards Agency has specific General Food Law Regulations that cover every aspect of the food manufacturing pipelines. This includes everything from ingredient production, to packaging and logistics. When selecting suppliers, manufacturers must ensure they are compliant with every article of these regulations.

In fact, manufacturers should only select suppliers they know will reliably adhere to traceability requirements, regardless of how small a contribution they appear to be making to a product. By identifying every commodity, manufacturers can map their material supply chain inputs across all their procurement categories and, ideally, trace every single product back to its origin. This includes raw ingredients, labelling and food packaging suppliers.

When the law caught up with Kurniawan’s fraudulent wine operation in 2012, agents discovered hauls of corks, recipes and counterfeit labels in his make-shift workshop. His efforts weren’t sophisticated, but his operation cost the American wine industry millions in bogus investments and, to some extent, caused a significant amount of damage to its reputation.

Food counterfeiting is a potential goldmine for fraudsters. While traceability takes time to implement, failure to prevent food fraud is estimated to cost manufacturers up to 85 per cent of their total profits. The proof is in the (non-counterfeit) pudding — investment in traceability is crucial.


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Cambodia to export fresh products to South Korea

Traceability in a food supply chain: Safety and quality perspectives

Author links open overlay panelMyo MinAungYoon SeokChang

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Food export traceability

The food industry is becoming more customer-oriented and needs faster response times to deal with food scandals and incidents. Good traceability systems help to minimize the production and distribution of unsafe or poor quality products, thereby minimizing the potential for bad publicity, liability, and recalls. The current food labelling system cannot guarantee that the food is authentic, good quality and safe. Therefore, traceability is applied as a tool to assist in the assurance of food safety and quality as well as to achieve consumer confidence. This paper presents comprehensive information about traceability with regards to safety and quality in the food supply chain.

Hyundai Agro from Cambodia will export fresh vegetables and other fresh ingredient from Cambodia to South Korea by the end of June this year, its managing director said. Chang Hoon Lee, MD of the company, said that about 16 types of fresh food will be collected and packed and then exported to South Korea. They include lemon grass, banana leaves, banana flower, lime leaves, water spinach, galanga among others.

“We have already sent two sets of lemon grass as samples to get feed-back from the importer and they decided to accept it. So now we are arranging for lemon grass farmer supplier and my staff will travel to all provinces to find a good quality product with fewer chemicals,” Hoon Lee added.

“We need sincere and honest and reasonable farmers, and we will supply our own fertiliser and pesticide to make it safe to eat. So far we have found five farmers to grow the crop and all of them really want to cooperate with us.”

“We need around 50 to 100 tonnes a year of each crop of banana leaf, banana flower, lime leaf, lemon grass, water spinach and galanga etc. However, we will start to open one crop at a time, step-by-step,” Hoon Lee said. “We are already preparing boxes, stickers, branding and relevant documentation.”

According to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cambodia exported agricultural products totalling more than 2 million tonnes plus a further 1 million tonnes informally in the first four months this year. From January to April, Cambodia exported 9,301 tonnes of cassava powder, 33,298 tonnes of corn, 2,252 tonnes of pepper, 44 tonnes of vegetable, 420 tonnes of tobacco, 186,205 tonnes of cashew nuts, 42,035 tonnes of mangoes, among other goods.


Turkey: Trabzon exports fresh produce to 27 countries

Food export traceability
Food export traceability

Saffet Kalyoncu, head of the Eastern Black Sea Exporters' Association (DKİB), reported that Trabzon, exported 294 thousand 884 tons of fresh fruit and vegetables to 27 countries in return for 179 million 46 thousand 128 USD (around 149 million Euro).

Kalyoncu, in his written statement emphasized that the northern city of Trabzon is an important exporter of fresh fruits and vegetables and ranks forth in the country in terms of export volume. "Trabzon-based exporters successfully expanded their global market" he added.

Kalyoncu admitted that exporters focused only on Russia for the last 25 years, but he said that this tendency changed due to difficulties with this destination. Therefore, he stated that exporters needed alternative markets and today Trabzon exports to 27 countries including European countries, especially Eastern Europe and the Balkans together with the Middle Eastern region.

Hong Kong is a new destination market
Kalyoncu pointed out to the exporters' success to reach to the Far East and that Hong Kong became a new destination market last year. He announced the new initiative in 2019 to increase the export of fresh fruits and vegetables and said:

"Exporters based in Trabzon invested a lot in this area. Exporters who possess packaging and processing plants, greenhouse fields and a good transportation network with fleet of trucks and Ro-Ro boats contributed a lot in the development of the sector. However, they need support from the state in order to ease unexpected obstacles in the customs and also in the domestic production and logistics because the costs have increased a lot."

Source: Haberturk

Fresh produce trade growing quicker than total global trade

Food export traceability
Food export traceability

The export trade in fresh fruit and vegetables has developed more rapidly than the total global trade in goods in the past ten years. Seen in value (expressed in euros), the export of fresh fruit and vegetables grew slightly faster by an average of eight per cent than the total global export in the past ten years. In the past year, the global fruit and vegetable export (including double counts of re-export) passed the limit of 100 billion dollar. That’s only a modest figure (0.7 per cent) in relation to the total export trade of goods in the world, which is 15 trillion (15,000 billion).

The value of the Dutch export goods amounts to about 430 billion euro. In the total global trade in goods, that means the Netherlands has a share of about three per cent. With that, the Netherlands is seen as the seventh exporter globally, after France, but before the UK and Italy. The total Dutch import of goods has stagnated in recent years, and is at a value of approximately 380 billion euro. With that, the Netherlands came ninth in the list of import countries in 2015. In the EU, Germany, the UK and France are slightly higher on that list.

For fresh fruit and vegetables, the Netherlands is the second export country after Spain with a share of nine per cent, as regards value. In the total Dutch export, fresh fruit and vegetables has a share of about two per cent. The Dutch export of fresh fruit and vegetables increased to more than nine billion euro last year, regarding value. Import also increased, to about 5.5 billion euro in the past year. On the list of fruit and vegetable exporters, the Netherlands is fourth.

Crisis tempered export increase

The ten-year analysis shows that the trade in fresh fruit and vegetables wasn’t much influenced by the crisis after 2009. The total global trade in goods shows a clear slump in 2009. The increase of global trade in fresh fruit and vegetables levelled a bit in 2009, but did grow.

Seen in quantity, the global trade in fresh fruit and vegetables grew by three per cent every year over the past ten years. With it, the global trade in fruit and vegetables grew quicker than the world population, considering that grew by an average 1.2 per cent per year to about 7.5 billion over the past ten years.

Spain is the number one exporter of fresh fruit and vegetables globally

Food export traceability
Food export traceability

Spain is the most important exporter of fresh fruit and vegetables globally. This has been the case for a long time. In recent years, Spain’s share in the total world trade of fresh fruit and vegetables has always been around 10 per cent. Spain represents about 12 per cent of the global trade, not including bananas.

Annually, Spain exports more than 12 million tonnes of fresh fruit and vegetables, valued at more than 12 billion euro. For comparison: the Netherlands annually exports (including re-export) 9 million tonnes of fruit valued at 9 billion euro. Globally, that puts the Netherlands in fourth and third place, respectively. Spanish export, which grew until 2014, has remained stable at that level in 2015 and 2016. In the first 7 months of this year, Spanish export grew by a few per cent. It’s noticeable that Spain has also been importing more and more fresh fruit and vegetables. In recent years, import grew by 5 per cent on average per year, to 2.15 million in 2016. Besides bananas and apples, this also concerns oranges.

Two-thirds of export vegetables from Almeria during winter months

About 60 per cent of Spanish export of fresh fruit and vegetables comes from three provinces: Almeria, Murcia and Valencia. Almeria and Murcia are Spain’s vegetable gardens, and Valencia is its citrus province. More than 40 per cent of Spanish citrus export comes from Valencia, followed by northern neighbour Castellon with 25 per cent. Almeria is the province of export of tomatoes (60 per cent), bell pepper (70 per cent), cucumbers (70 per cent) and courgettes and aubergines (both 80 per cent). Murcia, slightly to the east, is large in the export of lettuce (70 per cent), cabbage (70 per cent) and melons (70 per cent) and grapes (60 per cent).

Off all citrus produced in Spain (7.1 million tonnes), more than 40 per cent (3.0 million tonnes) could be sold abroad. A slightly smaller amount (2.7 million tonnes) was eaten as fresh product by the Spaniards themselves, and 1.2 million tonnes went to industry. Of the orange production of 3.7 million tonnes, more than a third was exported in 2016. Navellate was the variety exported most, with 45 per cent. Regarding amount, Navellina was the most important export variety. Of all tangerines and lemons produced in Spain, just over half could be sold abroad last year.

Traditionally, Spain is large in citrus. Oranges are Spain’s most important export product, followed by tangerines. Their shares in global trade were 23 and 29 per cent, respectively, last year. The other large Spanish export products are tomatoes (share global trade in 2016 12 per cent), and peaches/nectarines (39 per cent), bell pepper (22 per cent), watermelon (20 per cent), cucumbers (24 per cent), lemons (16 per cent), lettuce (47 per cent) and melons (20 per cent).

Bestsellers declining; other products larger increase

It’s noticeable that bestsellers in the Spanish export range — oranges, tangerines, tomatoes and bell peppers — reached their peak a few years ago. In 2013, the top three still represented 38 per cent of the total Spanish export of fresh fruit and vegetables, last year this was only 32 per cent. Of the top three, export declined by 13 per cent compared to 2013, while the other products were exported 18 per cent more compared to 2013.

The growth in recent years was therefore at the expense of other products. Products which Spain managed to sell abroad more are mostly cucumber, butterhead lettuce, melons and peaches. The flat variants of this product have clearly been injected with new life. Other growers in the range are: cauliflower/broccoli, onions. strawberries, garlic, aubergines, grapes, carrot, apples, plums, avocados and apricots.

Nearly everything to EU countries

Spain might be the most important exporter of fresh fruit and vegetables, Spanish product mostly stays within EU borders. Last year, 93 per cent of export was focused on EU countries. That hasn’t changed much in recent years either. It can be noticed that Spain is looking for new sales markets, but this mostly concerns limited volumes. Growth regions for Spain are Latin America, the Gulf states and South and East Asia.

Germany, France and the UK were the most important sales markets in 2016, with 26, 18 and 13 per cent of total export respectively. Combined, the top three is good for 57 per cent of total export. If we add the Netherlands, with eight per cent, to that, the four most important countries are good for two-thirds of the total export.

Germany is most important and continues to grow

Spanish export to Germany is still going well. From 2010, the average growth per year amounted to 7 per cent. In the first 7 months of 2017, export once again increased, although only modestly, by just 2 per cent. Oranges and tangerines are the bestsellers in export to Germany, but 4 products that increased considerably follow these two products closely:watermelons (average growth 2010/16 of 10 per cent), cucumbers (11 per cent), bell peppers (15 per cent) and tomatoes (8 per cent).

Export fresh produce
Export fresh produce

While the Spanish export assortment to France is fairly similar to the average regarding composition, the assortment to the UK looks differently. Oranges are only in fifth place, after tangerines, tomatoes, cauliflower and onions. With an average growth of 7 per cent in recent years, the British market is important for the sales of Spanish fruit and vegetables.

Mostly greenhouse vegetables to the Netherlands in second half of year

The importance of the Netherlands in Spanish fruit and vegetables has declined somewhat, from 9 per cent 2016 to 8 per cent last year. On the other hand, the import from Spain represents 14 per cent of total Dutch fruit and vegetable import. The most remarkable in the Spanish export assortment to the Netherlands is the limited share of Clementines, which is only four per cent of total Spanish export of this product. But the Dutch share in the export of other important products — peaches, nectarines, lemons and strawberries — is also small. The Dutch share is largest for tomatoes, cucumbers, bell pepper, melons, cauliflower and courgette, 11 to 14 per cent. Spanish product represents more than half of total Dutch import for a number of products. This concerns tomatoes, cucumbers, bell peppers, lettuce and courgette. During the Spanish export season for these products their dominance is naturally considerable. In that period, foreign competition for these products is at a minimum.

The Dutch export season of the important greenhouse vegetables — tomatoes, cucumbers and bell peppers — differs slightly from that of the Spanish season. In Spain, emphasis is on the winter months, while it’s during spring and summer in the Netherlands. In the previous Spanish export season, 2016/17, considerably fewer tomatoes were exported. From November until February, Spanish tomato export was significantly smaller than in previous years. A similar thing can be seen with cucumbers. Of bell peppers, practically the same amount was exported in the previous Spanish export season compared to previous years.

Food Safety and Trade: The Role of Traceability Systems

EEFS Project

Jul 31, 2019

Photo by Fintrac Inc.

This is the fourth installment in the Feed the Future Enabling Environment for Food Security project’s series on improving trade in safe, nutritious foods. The first post introduces steps toward enabling safe food trade in Africa. The second installment unpacks the complementary roles of regulations and standards in the marketplace to address food safety concerns, while the third looks at different forms of regulatory cooperation to facilitate increased trade in safe foods with lessons from Southeast Asia. This final installment introduces the importance of traceability to effectively administer standards and enforce regulations within agrifood supply chains to mitigate food safety threats.

Traceability — a system to track a product from production to consumption — is a critical tool for operationalizing standards and regulations through increasing transparency across food supply chains. Well-functioning traceability systems improve food safety control by allowing both public and private sector actors to verify that products meet market and/or regulatory requirements and to respond swiftly in the event of food safety breaches.

Developing country food systems in particular would benefit from the expansion of traceability, as they face a significant share of the global burden of foodborne illnesses. Expanded traceability may also help build the cross-border transparency necessary to facilitate access to regional and global markets. In order to thrive, however, end-to-end traceability systems rely on a multitude of enabling factors, from physical infrastructure and digital capacity to market incentives and data-use regulations — many of which are nascent or absent in developing markets.

What is a Traceability System?

A traceability system is the “the totality of data and operations that is capable of maintaining the desired information about a product and its components through all or part of its production and utilization chain.” [1] As a product passes from one market actor to another, a traceability system collects and records data points to perform real-time and ex-post tracking of a product’s movement through the value chain from origin to final destination. Traceability systems vary widely in their scope and sophistication. They can range from individual firm-level systems capturing transactions within their own supply chain to multistakeholder platforms capable of tracking a product across the entire food system.

Why Does Traceability Matter to Safe Food Trade?

Traceability reduces contamination, disease, and spoilage in the food supply by identifying hazards before affected products make it to end consumer markets. When unsafe foods slip through the cracks and enter the system, these systems allow market actors and/or regulators to identify and isolate the source quickly in order to mitigate the consequences. In the event of a product recall, traceability enables a targeted withdrawal of the foods most likely to have been affected, thereby minimizing waste and market distortions.

Traceability for food safety objectives can be particularly beneficial for fresh, perishable food value chains, such as fruits, vegetables, meat, and dairy — all of which are especially susceptible to spoilage and contamination.

Importantly, traceability systems can simultaneously protect consumer health at both the domestic and international levels. When systems are compatible across borders, they can facilitate food trade by providing market actors with the capacity to verify that a product meets requisite regulations and/or standards.

The Challenges and Promises of Traceability in Developing Countries

End-to-end traceability systems are challenging and expensive to implement. The private sector is the main driver of traceability, and investments are typically motivated by consumer demands, risk mitigation, standards compliance, efficiency gains, or some combination of these incentives.

In developing countries, the inherent challenges of establishing traceability are further exacerbated by deficient physical and technological infrastructure, spotty access to electricity and internet, poor digital literacy, and fragmented informal value chains. In these contexts, the private sector’s cost-benefit analysis does not always add up to a strong enough business case for investment. Consequently, traceability systems in developing countries are concentrated in export markets for products where consumer demand for accountability and proof-of-origin are loudest (e.g., sustainably harvested seafood, zero-deforestation palm production, single-origin coffee, etc.).

While increased access to mobile devices will continue to transform agricultural supply chains in developing countries, penetration of mobile internet connectivity — a critical input for many traceability systems — still lags behind: 44 percent of the population of sub-Saharan Africa has a mobile device, while only 23 percent has access to mobile internet. [2]

Additionally, traceability systems often require advanced technological and record-keeping capacities that small-scale market actors often lack. To complicate matters further, raw products produced by smallholder farmers are frequently combined at the collector/intermediary level, presenting the challenge traceability systems face when mixage occurs.

Despite these challenges, traceability systems can prove supplier compliance with standards and regulations and/or to verify geographic origin. This verification benefits small-scale actors by helping to integrate them into regional and global supply chains, as a number of successful pilots demonstrate.

For example, Farmforce is a web-based traceability system developed by the Syngenta Foundation that incorporates outgrowers and smallholder farmers to facilitate access to export markets. The software was first piloted in Kenya and later commercialized in Guatemala with the support of the Feed the Future Partnering for Innovation Project.

Partnering for Innovation has also supported the Haitian information technology company Solutions to develop a tracking software that provides full traceability to smallholder mango growers, enabling exports by ensuring compliance with the U.S. Food Safety Modernization Act. [3]

In another example, the European Union imposed mandatory inspections of 10 percent of Kenyan French beans and peas at ports in 2013 due to the presence of pests and pesticide residue, resulting in the exports of horticultural goods from Kenya falling dramatically. In response, the Feed the Future Kenya Agricultural Value Chain Enterprises project supported the development and launch of a National Horticulture Traceability System in 2016. The cloud-based system is tailored to smallholder horticultural exporters and facilitates compliance with export market standards. [4]

Blockchain and the Promise of Transparency

Blockchain and other distributed ledger technologies (DLTs) are attracting interest across sectors for their capacity to transform how transactions are made and recorded. Blockchain is a decentralized digital ledger in which data are inputted, verified by consensus, and updated in real-time across a network of actors. Once a piece of information is added, it is permanently and unalterably stored in the blockchain.

A range of agrifood actors are already integrating blockchain into their operations. IBM’s blockchain-based traceability platform Food Trust incorporates over 80 retailers and suppliers to date, including food giants like Carrefour, Walmart, and Nestle. Food traceability technology startups such as Ripe.IO, Provenance, and FoodLogiQ are also crowding into the space with their own proprietary platforms.

Despite the buzz surrounding blockchain, a number of barriers to adoption exist in both developing and developed countries alike. Transitioning to a blockchain-enabled platform entails high upfront and operating costs and requires well-established digital and physical infrastructure. Uncertainty surrounding the regulation of blockchain as well as data protection, privacy, and usage issues are additional disincentives to adoption.

In practice, blockchain-based systems are also generally slower than traditional digital databases. Integral functions, such as error checking, consensus verification, and built-in redundancy, slow down the system and require high energy usage and processing capacity. Finally, while blockchain may prevent data manipulation, it does not eliminate the need for the collection and input of accurate, reliable data.

Blockchain undoubtedly offers some advantages over other digital traceability systems. The relative homogeneity across blockchain systems facilitates better interoperability, and decentralized ledgers may be preferable when addressing traceability issues in longer value chains where a centralized system is not feasible. [5]

However, blockchain should not be viewed as a silver bullet to solve traceability challenges. The operating environment and market context will often determine whether a blockchain-enabled platform or an alternative electronic traceability system is appropriate. Basic prerequisites for successfully introducing a DLT platform include regulatory certainty, sufficient technological infrastructure and internet connectivity, high digital literacy, and incentives to cover upfront costs.

Additionally, there should be a solid justification for not using an alternative centralized traceability database operated and intermediated by a central authority, which is often simpler, cheaper, and faster to build and use. The case for introducing a DLT/blockchain platform for traceability is generally built on: (1) the need for multiple actors to be able to access and interact with the database directly and simultaneously and (2) some level of distrust between actors [6] due to data reliability concerns.

The Way Forward

As consumers become more aware of food safety issues in developing countries, actors all along food value chains must be equipped with the ability to meet consumer demands and comply with standards and regulations. Concurrently, officials in both the public and private sector will need to effectively administer these systems to ensure compliance. A critical component of administering food safety standards and regulations is the ability to trace products from their origin through the supply chain, isolate threats, and recall contaminated products when needed.

Well-designed and administered traceability systems, regardless of the platform used, can advance producer access to markets and improve food safety for consumers. While blockchain and other DLTs are exciting innovations that present some unique advantages for food supply chain management, they will not solve all of the challenges that developing countries face in implementing traceability systems. In some cases, centralized technologies may be preferable.

National governments and development agencies must expand investments in developing the foundation upon which effective traceability systems can be implemented. These efforts should include enabling private sector investment in agrifood value chains, expanding consumer awareness of food safety issues, establishing an appropriate regulatory framework for food safety, strengthening market actor capacity to comply with standards and regulations, building institutional capacity to administer standards and regulations, and strengthening rural information and communications technology infrastructure.


[1] International Trade Centre. Traceability in Food and Agricultural Products. Bulletin No. 91/2015.

[2] GSMA Intelligence. The Mobile Economy Sub-Saharan Africa 2019.

[3] Feed the Future Partnering for Innovation. Annual Report 2018.

[4] Bob Koigi. “National Traceability System Breathes New Life to Kenya’s Horticulture Industry.” HortiNews, January 20, 2017.

[5] P. Olsen, M. Borit, S. Syed. “Applications, Limitations, Costs, and Benefits Related to the Use of Blockchain Technology in the Food Industry.” Nofima AS, February 2019.

[6] Paul Nelson. Primer on Blockchain: How to Assess the Relevance of Distributed Ledger Technology to International Development. USAID.



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